|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Income Taxes [Abstract]|
(9) Income Taxes
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted the Tax Act. The Tax Act makes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code, including, but not limited to, (1) reducing the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent; (2) providing bonus depreciation that will allow for full expensing of qualified property; (3) creating a new limitation on deductible interest expense; (4) eliminating the corporate alternative minimum tax (“AMT”) and changing how existing AMT credits can be realized; (5) changing rules related to uses and limitations of net operating loss carryforwards created in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017; (6) adding limitations on the deductibility of certain executive compensation; and (7) requiring a one-time transition tax on certain unrepatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries that is payable over eight years. The SEC issued guidance on accounting for the tax effects of the Tax Act. The Company reflected the income tax effects of those aspects of the Tax Act for which the accounting is known as of December 31, 2017 and made immaterial revisions to such amounts during the allowed one year measurement period. As of December 31, 2018, the Company has completed its analysis of the tax effects of the Tax Act.
The corporate rate reduction was applied to our inventory of deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities which resulted in the net tax benefit in the period ended December 31, 2017.
Income tax benefit (expense) consists of:
The following table presents a summary of our domestic and foreign earnings from continuing operations before income taxes:
Income tax benefit (expense) differs from the amounts computed by applying the U.S. federal income tax rate of 21% in 2018 and 35% in 2017 and 2016 as a result of the following:
For the year ended December 31, 2018 income tax expense was lower than the U.S. statutory rate of 21% due to tax benefits from tax credits and incentives generated by our alternative energy investments, a reduction in the Company’s state effective tax rate used to measure deferred taxes resulting from the GCI Liberty Split-Off in March 2018, and a reduction in the Company’s state effective tax rate used to measure deferred taxes resulting from a state law change during the second quarter.
For the year ended December 31, 2017 the significant reconciling items were net tax benefits for the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% on deferred taxes, the tax-free consolidation of our equity method investment in HSN, and tax benefits derived from Qurate Retail’s alternative energy tax credits and incentives, partially offset by net tax expense for an increase in the Company’s valuation allowance and an increase in the Company’s state effective tax rate used to measure deferred taxes.
The Company has also evaluated the impact of the one-time mandatory repatriation provision of the Tax Act. Under that provision, earnings and profits of certain of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries not previously subjected to US tax could be subjected to US tax in 2017 at reduced rates. The Tax Act allows that earnings and profits deficits of certain subsidiaries may be used to offset the surpluses in others in computing the amount subject to the tax under the mandatory repatriation provision. The Company has performed an evaluation of its earnings and profits of its foreign subsidiaries and concluded that deficits in some of the subsidiaries offset the surpluses in others so that no amount is subject to the mandatory repatriation provision of the Tax Act.
Income tax expense was lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate of 35% in 2016 due to tax benefits derived from Qurate Retail’s alternative energy tax credits and incentives.
The tax effects of temporary differences that give rise to significant portions of the deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities are presented below:
The Company's valuation allowance decreased $11 million in 2018, and $9 million of the change in valuation allowance affected tax expense and is primarily the result of new provisions in the Tax Act that changed the Company’s judgment with respect to the future utilization of its foreign tax credit carryforward. The remaining $2 million affected equity.
At December 31, 2018, the Company has a deferred tax asset of $177 million for net operating losses and interest expense carryforwards, and a deferred tax asset of $121 million for foreign tax credit carryforwards. The net operating losses are expected to be utilized prior to expiration, except for $107 million. As a result of the international provisions in the Tax Act, the Company estimates that $47 million of its foreign tax credit carryforward will expire without utilization.
A reconciliation of unrecognized tax benefits is as follows:
As of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, the Company had recorded tax reserves of $70 million, $71 million and $72 million, respectively, related to unrecognized tax benefits for uncertain tax positions. If such tax benefits were to be recognized for financial statement purposes, $56 million, $60 million and $50 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, would be reflected in the Company's tax expense and affect its effective tax rate. Qurate Retail's estimate of its unrecognized tax benefits related to uncertain tax positions requires a high degree of judgment. The Company has tax positions for which the amount of related unrecognized tax benefits could change during 2018. The amount of unrecognized tax benefits related to these issues could change as a result of potential settlements, lapsing of statute of limitations and revisions of estimates. It is reasonably possible that the amount of the Company's gross unrecognized tax benefits may decrease within the next twelve months by up to $0.6 million.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company's tax years prior to 2015 are closed for federal income tax purposes, and the IRS has completed its examination of the Company's 2015 and 2016 tax years. The Company's 2017 and 2018 tax years are being examined currently as part of the IRS's Compliance Assurance Process ("CAP") program. Various states are currently examining the Company's prior years’ state income tax returns. The Company is not under audit in any foreign tax jurisdictions, and no QVC subsidiaries are currently under audit in any foreign jurisdiction.
The Company recorded $20 million of accrued interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions as of December 31, 2018, and $17 million as of each of December 31, 2017 and 2016.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef